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Crimes (Abduction)

Letters between Rengel, Flores and Ugarte y Loyola concerning Indian hostilities, details of general campaign in 1787-1788.

Author(s): 
Rengel, Joseph Antonio (Comandante Inspector)
Author(s): 
Flores, Manuel Antonio (Virrey)
Author(s): 
Ugarte y Loyola, Jacobo (Comandante General Intendente)
Date: 
09-04-1787
Documentation: 
Paso del norte, Arispe. September 4, 1787 - July 27, 1788. 96p. Letters, tables. Originals, signed, copies. not been inspected for 21 years, 2) to determine cumanche- navajo-Spanish relations, and 3) to familiarize himself with the terrain prior to launching a military campaign. Reports to Ugarte y Loyola that all New Mexico troops are mobilized for action. Includes detailed diary of consequent campaign around Santa Fe in October 1787. Santa Fe campaign military force composed of presidial troops and cumanche and Apache xicarilla auxiliaries. Details include distance traveled, reports of scouting activities, geographical and weather details, and tabular breakdown of force into four divisions, listing commander, station, and force size. Rengel blames slowness of March on insubordination and unruliness of indian auxiliaries; virrey responds, suggesting exclusion of auxiliaries from main campaigns. Includes description of landmarks along route, information on jacales settlement patterns, high accuracy of niera's (?) Map, construction of bridge to cross Colorado river, battle tactics of reconnaissance and night attack, and peacefulness of cumanches. More specific campaign details are recorded in a division by division report. Virrey flores responds, encouraging more action and less writing. Ugarte y Loyola also reports events of Cordero's and bergara's troops in Nueva Vizcaya campaign (October 1787-mar 1788). Table illustrates organization of force into four divisions, showing locations and force size for each division. Each division presents account of indian hostilities and a report of military actions taken. Indian hostilities include general theft (horses, cattle, mules, burros, and oxen), murders, assaults on mule trains, corpse stripping, kidnappings, abductions, and massacre of mescales. Reports falseness of Apache and mescalero peace proposals, how indians bribe vecinos to spy on military cavalry movements and report these maneuvers to indians, indian custom of collecting ears of killed enemies, and indian ambush of officials attempting to track indians in mountains. Includes summary tables of indian hostilities and military combat statistics by indian group, province, and division. Provinces included are Sonora, Nueva Vizcaya, New Mexico, Coahuila, Texas in 1787. explains meaning of term gileno as one type of chiricagui. Gileno is also an umbrella term for mimbrenos and Apaches in western part of Nueva Vizcaya. Gilenos cited as worst enemies, feared by Spanish and indians alike. Progress toward indian pacification is reported. Describes how mescalero nation was ordered by capitancillos to move to Santa Rosa. With mescalero peace in Nueva Vizcaya established, emphasis on pacification shifts to Coahuila. Military maneuvers described. Spanish use both indians and Spanish for reconnaissance activities. Detailed description of bergara's, Cordero's and others' forces milpa destruction (corn, tobacco, frijoles, calabasa), rancheria assaults, killing of Apache guide by Volunteers. Limited success in tracking and animal recovery blamed on snow, tired horses. Virrey flores praises bergara's zeal. (S. Gibbs, February 1988)

Letter from Mendinuta to Bucareli about Apache and cumanche hostilities.

Author(s): 
Fermin de Mendinueta, Pedro
Date: 
07-23-1773
Documentation: 
Santa Fee. October 16, 1773. 4p. Letter. Original, signed.
General Subjects: 

Rescue of Spanish boy from Pimas by captain Anza.

Author(s): 
Pineda, Juan de (Gobernador)
Date: 
05-15-1769
Documentation: 
Pitic. May 15, 1769. 8p. Informe. Signed.
General Subjects: 

Letters about Indian attacks and military campaigns in Sonora.

Author(s): 
Pineda, Juan de (Gobernador)
Date: 
03-17-1769
Documentation: 
Pitic. March, 1769. 18p. Letter. Signed.
General Subjects: