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Padre Francisco Antonio Barbastro to virrey Conde de Revilla Gigedo, informe concerning missions of Pimeria Alta.

Serial Number: 
041-00865
Title: 
Padre Francisco Antonio Barbastro to virrey Conde de Revilla Gigedo, informe concerning missions of Pimeria Alta.
Author(s): 
Barbastro, Francisco Antonio (Fray)
Date: 
12-01-1793
Documentation: 
Aconchi. December 1, 1793. Auto. Copy (dated January 21, 1794).
Summary: 
Describes geographical range Pimeria Alta missions. Speaks of continuing Apache menace. Notes depopulation of area due to diseases, Apache attacks. Discusses temporal affairs of missions, including livestock raising, planting communal fields maize, wheat, and vegetables, which feeds widows, sick, military escorts, mission Indians during lean months of April, May, and June, thereby inducing Indians to remain in pueblos instead of wild-food gathering. Notes sale of surplus to mines/presidios to purchase church supplies, barter goods. Notes decline of mission agriculture last 8 years due to lack of seeds, decline of Cieneguilla mines, and increased number of farmers. States mission business is conducted by Indian governors under missionaries' guidance. Describes architecture of Indian houses; agriculture, including cultivation of pomegranates, quinces, cotton, and sugar cane as well as shrubs of gomilla, jojoba, both of which used medicinally. Describes herbs used, including indigo (anil), gediondilla, zimarron, contra yerba. Claims 2 harvests pithaya per year in west. Notes presence gypsum, lime, piedra bezal found in deer, especially those killed near coast. Says province is covered with grama grass, thereby providing forage for much livestock. Describes climate, mineral wealth, including real of Cieneguilla, only settlement of Spaniards in Pimeria Alta. Describes settlements. Tiburones described as Seri groups. Describes excellent salt fields along coast. Describes port of Tepoca/pearl beds nearby. Notes presence of subterranean water. Says Papagos come to missions to sell young boys captured in slave raids carried out by interior nations; these slaves called Vijoras (Nixoras). No active commerce carried on by Indians. Describes uses of cotton. Says Pimas are good farmers, growing wheat, maize, squash, cotton. During harvests, many traders arrive to barter cloth, etc. for produce. Says Pimas stay in pueblos, not like Yaquis and many Opatas who wander (probably to work in mines). Discusses reasons why missions should not be secularized. Estimates Gila Pima population at 2,000. Compares Pimas favorably to Opatas, who no longer respect missionaries. Describes temporary nature of Spanish settlement of Sonora, Pimeria Alta. Says 8 leagues from Aconchi, the San Juan mine, full of water, is abandoned now. Discusses precautions necessary for populating Sonora. Encourages development of Tepoca, Guaymas to give Sonora easy access to sea, Tiburon Island as way station for transportation of livestock. Discusses need to develop educational facilities, including primary schools at Indian settlements. Notes belief among Opatas at Aconchi in Montezuma, who they claimed was their king and had risen and appeared in mountains. Describes his school, which taught girls as well as boys to read, write. (T. Sheridan) (1976)
Persons: 
Font, Pedro (Padre)
Persons: 
Crespo, Benito
Persons: 
Garces, Francisco (Padre)
Persons: 
Moyano (Padre)
Persons: 
Neve, Felipe de
Persons: 
Guillen, Felipe (Padre)
Persons: 
Guemes y Horcasitas, Juan Francisco de (Conde de Revilla Gigedo)
Persons: 
Barbastro, Francisco Antonio (Padre)
Persons: 
Revillagigedo
Persons: 
Rivera Guadian, Juan Francisco (Fray)
Places: 
Colorado (Rio)
Places: 
San Francisco Moqui
Places: 
Nochi
Places: 
Pimeria Alta
Places: 
Gila (Rio)
Places: 
Saric
Places: 
Tubutama
Places: 
Ati
Places: 
Caborca
Places: 
Ures
Places: 
Tecoripa
Places: 
Tucson (Tueson)
Places: 
Arispe
Places: 
Cieneguilla
Places: 
Tumacacori
Places: 
San Xavier
Places: 
Santa Maria Suanca
Places: 
Terrenate
Places: 
San Luis (Valle)
Places: 
Guevavi
Places: 
Calabasas
Places: 
Cocospera
Places: 
Imuris
Places: 
Magdalena
Places: 
San Ignacio
Places: 
Altar
Places: 
Santa Teresa
Places: 
Oquitoa
Places: 
Pitiqui
Places: 
Bisaniq
Places: 
Tepoca
Places: 
Isla Tiburon
Places: 
Yaqui (Rio)
Places: 
California
Places: 
San Antonio de la Huerta (Real)
Places: 
Aigame (Aygame)
Places: 
Bacanuchi
Places: 
Chinapa
Places: 
Banamichi
Places: 
Ures
Places: 
San Carlos de Sonora (Real)
Places: 
Taraychi
Places: 
Nuri
Places: 
Onavas
Places: 
Tecoripa
Places: 
Suaqui
Places: 
Buenavista
Places: 
Cumuripa
Places: 
Belen
Places: 
San Jose
Places: 
Santa Rosalia
Places: 
Nacameri
Places: 
Santa Barbara (Canal)
Places: 
Guachinera
Places: 
Opatu (Opulo)
Places: 
Guasavas
Places: 
Bavispe
Places: 
San Gabriel
Places: 
Monterrey (Monte Rey)
Places: 
New Mexico
Places: 
Guaymas
Places: 
Alamos
Places: 
Oposura
Places: 
Queretaro, Colegio de Propaganda Fide de la Santa Cruz de
Ethnic Groups: 
Apaches
Ethnic Groups: 
Tiburones
Ethnic Groups: 
Seris
Ethnic Groups: 
Papagos
Ethnic Groups: 
Tipocas
Ethnic Groups: 
Vijoras (Nixoras)
Ethnic Groups: 
Pimas
Ethnic Groups: 
Yaquis
Ethnic Groups: 
Opatas
Ethnic Groups: 
Pimas Gilenos
Ethnic Groups: 
Yumas
Ethnic Groups: 
nochis
Ethnic Groups: 
Jamajovas
Ethnic Groups: 
Moquis
First Location: 
AZTM, AGN, Vol. 033 ff. 529-544 exp. 5
Original Location: 
AGN, Mexico City, Provincias Internas Vol. 033 ff. 529-544 exp. 5
Language: 
Spanish
Reference Number: 
3300017
Rights: 
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